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Defamation of religion became a serious matter for the United Nations in 1999. In that year, Pakistan brought before the United Nations Commission on Human Rights (CHR), under the agenda item on racism, a resolution entitled "Defamation of Islam."[1] The resolution expressed deep concern at the negative stereotyping of Islam, and urged the members of the United Nations to combat religious intolerance against Muslims.[1] The Commission adopted the resolution after its title was changed to "Defamation of religions," and its purport was changed to embrace all religions.[2] Each year between 1999 and 2006, the Commission approved similar resolutions. In March 2006, the Human Rights Commission became the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC). The UNHRC approved similar resolutions for 2006 and thereafter. Beginning in 2005, the United Nations General Assembly adopted annually a resolution entitled "Combating Defamation of Religions."

1999Edit

In April 1999, at the urging of the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC), Pakistan brought before the United Nations Commission on Human Rights a resolution entitled "Defamation of Islam." The purpose of the resolution was to have the Commission stand up against what the OIC claimed was a campaign to defame Islam.[1] Some members of the Commission proposed that the resolution be changed to embrace all religions. The Commission accepted the proposal, and changed the title of the resolution to "Defamation of Religions." The resolution urged "all States, within their national legal framework, in conformity with international human rights instruments to take all appropriate measures to combat hatred, discrimination, intolerance and acts of violence, intimidation and coercion motivated by religious intolerance, including attacks on religious places, and to encourage understanding, tolerance and respect in matters relating to freedom of religion or belief."[2] The Commission adopted the resolution without a vote.[1]

2000 to 2005Edit

In 2000, the CHR adopted a similar resolution without a vote. [3][1] In 2001, a vote on a resolution entitled "Combating defamation of religions as a means to promote human rights, social harmony and religious and cultural diversity" received 28 votes in favour, 15 against, and 9 abstentions.[4][1] In 2002, a vote on a resolution entitled "Combating defamation of religion" received 30 votes in favour, 15 against, and 8 abstentions.[5] In 2003, 2004, and 2005, by similar votes, the CHR approved resolutions entitled "Combating defamation of religions."[1]

In 2005, Yemen introduced a resolution entitled "Combating Defamation of Religions" in the General Assembly (60th Session).[6] 101 states voted in favour of the resolution, 53 voted against, and 20 abstained.[7]

2006Edit

In March 2006, the HRC became the UNHRC. The UNHRC approved a resolution entitled 'Combating Defamation of Religions', and submitted it to the General Assembly. [8] In the General Assembly, 111 member states voted in favour of the resolution, 54 voted against, and 18 abstained. Russia and China, permanent members of the UN Security Council, voted for the Resolution.[9]

2007Edit

On 30 March 2007, the UNHRC adopted a resolution entitled "Combating Defamation of Religions." The resolution called upon the High Commissioner for Human Rights to report on the activities of her office with regard to combating defamation of religions.[10]

On 30 March 2007, the UNHRC adopted a resolution entitled "Elimination of all forms of intolerance and of discrimination based on religion or belief." The resolution called upon the Special Rapporteur on freedom of religion or belief to report on this issue for the Human Rights Council at its sixth session.[11]

In August 2007, the Special Rapporteur, Doudou Diène, reported to the General Assembly "on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance on the manifestations of defamation of religions and in particular on the serious implications of Islamophobia on the enjoyment of all rights." Among other recommendations, the Special Rapporteur recommended that the Member States promote dialogue between cultures, civilizations, and religions taking into consideration:

(a) The need to provide equal treatment to the combat of all forms of defamation of religions, thus avoiding hierarchization of forms of discrimination, even though their intensity may vary according to history, geography and culture;

(b) The historical and cultural depth of all forms of defamation of religions, and therefore the need to complement legal strategies with an intellectual and ethical strategy relating to the processes, mechanisms and representations which constitute those manifestations over time;

...

(e) The need to pay particular attention and vigilance to maintain a careful balance between secularism and the respect of freedom of religion. A growing anti-religious culture and rhetoric is a central source of defamation of all religions and discrimination against their believers and practitioners. In this context governments should pay a particular attention to guaranteeing and protecting the places of worship and culture of all religions.[12]

On 4 September 2007, the High Commissioner for Human Rights reported to the UNHRC that "Enhanced cooperation and stronger political will by Member States are essential for combating defamation of religions."[13]

On 18 December 2007, the General Assembly voted on another resolution entitled "Combating Defamation of Religions."[14] 108 states voted in favour of the resolution; 51 voted against it; and 25 abstained.[15]The resolution required the Secretary General to report to the sixty-third session of the General Assembly on the implementation of the resolution, and to have regard for “the possible correlation between defamation of religions and the upsurge in incitement, intolerance and hatred in many parts of the world.”

2008Edit

On 27 March 2008, the UNHRC passed another resolution about the defamation of religion. The resolution :

10. Emphasizes that respect of religions and their protection from contempt is an essential element conducive for the exercise by all of the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion;

11. Urges all States to ensure that all public officials, including members of law enforcement bodies, the military, civil servants and educators, in the course of their official duties, respect all religions and beliefs and do not discriminate against persons on the grounds of their religion or belief, and that all necessary and appropriate education or training is provided;

12. Emphasizes that, as stipulated in international human rights law, everyone has the right to freedom of expression, and that the exercise of this right carries with it special duties and responsibilities, and may therefore be subject to certain restrictions, but only those provided by law and necessary for the respect of the rights or reputations of others, or for the protection of national security or of public order, or of public health or morals;

13. Reaffirms that general comment No. 15 of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, in which the Committee stipulates that the prohibition of the dissemination of all ideas based upon racial superiority or hatred is compatible with the freedom of opinion and expression, is equally applicable to the question of incitement to religious hatred;

14. Deplores the use of printed, audio-visual and electronic media, including the Internet, and of any other means to incite acts of violence, xenophobia or related intolerance and discrimination towards Islam or any religion;

15. Invites the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance to continue to report on all manifestations of defamation of religions, and in particular on the serious implications of Islamophobia, on the enjoyment of all rights to the Council at its ninth session;

16. Requests the High Commissioner for Human Rights to report on the implementation of the present resolution and to submit a study compiling relevant existing legislations and jurisprudence concerning defamation of and contempt for religions to the Council at its ninth session.

21 members were in favour of the resolution; 10 were opposed; 14 abstained.[16]

The High Commissioner presented her report about defamation of, and contempt for, religions on 5 September 2008.[17] She proposed the holding of a consultation with experts from 2 to 3 October 2008 in Geneva about the permissible limitations to freedom of expression in accordance with international human rights law. In another report, dated 12 September 2008, the High Commissioner noted that different countries have different notions of what "defamation of religion" means.[18]

Githu Muigai, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, addressed the UNHRC on 19 September 2008. He delivered the report[19] prepared by Doudou Diène. The report called on Member States to shift the present discussion in international fora from the idea of "defamation of religions" to the legal concept: "incitement to national, racial or religious hatred," which is grounded on international legal instruments.

On 24 November 2008, during the Sixty-third Session, the General Assembly's Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian & Cultural) approved a resolution entitled 'Combating defamation of religions'.[20] The resolution requests "the Secretary-General to submit a report on the implementation of the present resolution, including on the possible correlation between defamation of religions and the upsurge in incitement, intolerance and hatred in many parts of the world, to the General Assembly at its sixty-fourth session." 85 states voted in favour of the resolution; 50 states voted against the resolution; 42 states abstained.[21]

2009Edit

In February 2009, Zamir Akram, permanent representative of Pakistan to the United Nations Office at Geneva, in a meeting of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination, commented on the "defamation of religion." He said "there was an impression that Pakistan was trying to put in place an international anti-defamation provision in the context of the Durban Review Conference." Akram said the impression "was totally incorrect." Akram's delegation said:

. . . defamation of religions could and had led to violence . . . . The end result was the creation of a kind of Islamophobia in which Muslims were typecast as terrorists. That did not mean that they opposed freedom of expression; it merely meant that there was a level at which such expression led to incitement. An example was the propaganda campaign that had been led by the Nazis in the Second World War against the Jews which had led to the Holocaust."[22]

In advance of 26 March 2009, more than 200 civil society organizations from 46 countries, including Muslim, Christian, Jewish, Secular, Humanist and Atheist groups, urged the UNHRC by a joint petition to reject any resolution against the defamation of religion. [23]

On 26 March 2009, the UNHRC passed a resolution, proposed by Pakistan, which condemned the "defamation of religion" as a human rights violation by a vote of 23-11, with 13 abstentions.[24] The resolution:

17. Expresses its appreciation to the High Commissioner for holding a seminar on freedom of expression and advocacy of religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence, in October 2008, and requests her to continue to build on this initiative, with a view to contributing concretely to the prevention and elimination of all such forms of incitement and the consequences of negative stereotyping of religions or beliefs, and their adherents, on the human rights of those individuals and their communities;

18. Requests the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance to report on all manifestations of defamation of religions, and in particular on the serious implications of Islamophobia, on the enjoyment of all rights by their followers, to the Council at its twelfth session;

19. Requests the High Commissioner for Human Rights to report to the Council at its twelfth session on the implementation of the present resolution, including on the possible correlation between defamation of religions and the upsurge in incitement, intolerance and hatred in many parts of the world.

Supporters of the resolution argued that the resolution is necessary to prevent the defamation of Islam while opponents argued that such a resolution was an attempt to bring to the international body the anti-defamation laws prevalent in some Muslim countries.[25][26]

On 1 July 2009, Githu Muigai, Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, submitted to the UNHRC the report requested by it on 26 March 2009. The report "reiterates the recommendation of his predecessor to encourage a shift away from the sociological concept of the defamation of religions towards the legal norm of non-incitement to national, racial or religious hatred."[27]

On 31 July 2009, the Secretary General submitted to the General Assembly the report that it requested in November 2008. The Secretary General noted, "The Special Rapporteurs called for anchoring the debate in the existing international legal framework provided by the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights — more specifically its articles 19 and 20." The Secretary General concluded, "In order to tackle the root causes of intolerance, a much broader set of policy measures needs to be addressed covering the areas of intercultural dialogue as well as education for tolerance and diversity."[28]

On 30 September 2009, at the UNHRC's twelfth session, the United States and Egypt introduced a resolution which condemned inter alia "racial and religious stereotyping."[29] The European Union's representative, Jean-Baptiste Mattei (France), said the European Union "rejected and would continue to reject the concept of defamation of religions." He said, "Human rights laws did not and should not protect belief systems." The OIC's representative on the UNHRC, Zamir Akram (Pakistan), said, "Negative stereotyping or defamation of religions was a modern expression of religious hatred and xenophobia." Carlos Portales (Chile) observed, "The concept of the defamation of religion took them in an area that could lead to the actual prohibition of opinions."[30][31][32] The UNHRC adopted the resolution without a vote.[30]

In Geneva, from 19 to 30 October 2009, the Ad Hoc Committee of the Human Rights Council on the Elaboration of Complementary Standards[33] met to update the measures for combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, and related intolerance that the Durban I conference had formulated.[34] The committee achieved little because of conflict over a variety of issues including "defamation of religion." The United States said that defamation of religion is “a fundamentally flawed concept.” Sweden, for the European Union, argued that international human rights law protects individuals, not institutions or religions. France insisted that the UN must not afford legal protection to systems of belief. Syria criticized the "typical and expected Western silence" on "acts of religious discrimination." Syria said "in real terms defamation means targeting Muslims."[35]

Zamir Akram (Pakistan) wrote to the Ad Hoc Committee on 29 October 2009 to explain why the OIC would not abandon the idea of defamation of religion. Akram's letter states:

The OIC is concerned by the instrumentalization of religions through distortion or ridicule aimed at demeaning and provoking their followers to violence as well as at promoting contempt towards religious communities in order to de-humanize their constituent members with purpose of justifying advocacy of racial and religious hatred and violence against these individuals."[36]

The letter says defamation of religion has been "wrongly linked with malafide intentions to its perceived clash with" the freedom of opinion and expression. The letter declares:

All religions are sacred and merit equal respect and protection. Double standards, including institutional preferential treatment for one religion or group of people must be avoided. The OIC demands similar sanctity for all religions, their religious personalities, symbols and followers. Tolerance and understanding cannot merely be addressed through open debate and inter-cultural dialogue as defamation trends are spreading to the grass root levels. These growing tendencies need to be checked by introducing a single universal international human rights framework.

In New York, on 29 October 2009, the UN's Third Committee (Social, Humanitarian & Cultural) approved a draft resolution[37] entitled "Combating defamation of religions" by a vote which had 81 for, 55 against, and 43 abstaining.[38]

On 18 December 2009, the General Assembly approved a resolution deploring the defamation of religions by a vote of 80 nations in favour and 61 against with 42 abstentions.[39]

2010Edit

On 25 March 2010, 20 members of the UNHRC voted in favour of a resolution entitled "Combating defamation of religions"; 17 members voted against the resolution; 8 abstained; 2 were absent.[40]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 "Combating Defamation of Religions". Becket Fund for Religious Liberty. 2 June 2008. http://www.becketfund.org/files/73099.pdf. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/CHR/resolutions/E-CN_4-RES-1999-82.doc
  3. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/CHR/resolutions/E-CN_4-RES-2000-84.doc
  4. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/CHR/resolutions/E-CN_4-RES-2001-4.doc
  5. http://www.unhchr.ch/huridocda/huridoca.nsf/AllSymbols/AFE565E9560973C9C1256C93004A41E0/$File/G0215272.pdf?OpenElement
  6. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/RES/60/150&Lang=E A/RES/60/150
  7. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/60/PV.64&Lang=E Vote on 16 December 2005 (A/60/PV.64)
  8. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/RES/61/164&Lang=E A/RES/61/164
  9. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/61/PV.81&Lang=E Vote on 19 December 2006
  10. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/HRC/resolutions/A-HRC-RES-4-9.doc
  11. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/HRC/resolutions/A-HRC-RES-4-10.doc
  12. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/HRC/6/6&Lang=E Report by Doudou Diène U. N. doc. A/HRC/6/6 (21 August 2007)
  13. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/HRC/6/4&Lang=E
  14. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/RES/62/154&Lang=E A/RES/62/154
  15. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/62/PV.76&Lang=E Vote on 18 December 2007
  16. http://ap.ohchr.org/documents/E/HRC/resolutions/A_HRC_RES_7_19.pdf
  17. High Commissioner's report 5 September 2008(A/HRC/9/25).
  18. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?Open&DS=A/HRC/9/7&Lang=E
  19. Report by Doudou Diène
  20. http://daccess-ods.un.org/access.nsf/Get?OpenAgent&DS=A/C.3/63/L.22/Rev.1&Lang=E
  21. Third Committee vote on defamation of religions Item 64(b) 24 November 2008.
  22. http://www.unog.ch/unog/website/news_media.nsf/(httpNewsByYear_en)/F71573F40ACBC2B3C1257562004DA9DF?OpenDocument Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination -- Report of Pakistan, Press Release, 20 February 2009.
  23. http://www.iheu.org/human-rights-council-resolution-combating-defamation-religion
  24. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/10session/A.HRC.10.L.11.pdf
  25. "U.N. rights council passes religious defamation resolution". Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). 26 March 2009. http://jta.org/news/article/2009/03/26/1004038/human-rights-body-passes-religious-defamation-resolution. Retrieved 26 March 2009. 
  26. MacInnis, Laura (26 March 2009). "UNHRC Resolution 26 March 2009". Reuters. http://www.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idUSTRE52P60220090326. Retrieved 27 March 2009. 
  27. http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/hrcouncil/docs/12session/A-HRC-12-38_E.pdf
  28. A/64/209.
  29. http://www.unitedstatesaction.com/documents/Oct2009-UNHRC/A_HRC_12_L.14_Rev.1-English.pdf
  30. 30.0 30.1 http://www.unhchr.ch/huricane/huricane.nsf/view01/6A69FF0F95283CE7C12576430046793B?opendocument
  31. http://www.realcourage.org/2009/10/unhrc-egypt-u-s-resolution-concerns-rights-activists-supporting-freedom-to-challenge-religious-views/
  32. Bayefsky, Anne (5 October 2009). "You Can't Say That". The Weekly Standard. http://www.weeklystandard.com/Content/Public/Articles/000/000/017/043ytrhc.asp. Retrieved 5 November 2009. 
  33. www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/racism/AdHocCommittee.htm
  34. http://blog.unwatch.org/?cat=9
  35. http://blog.unwatch.org/?p=497#more-497
  36. http://www.unwatch.org/atf/cf/%7B6deb65da-be5b-4cae-8056-8bf0bedf4d17%7D/OIC%20DOCUMENT%20TO%20AD%20HOC%20COMMITTEE%2029%20OCTOBER%202009.PDF
  37. http://www.eyeontheun.org/assets/attachments/documents/A_C.3_64_L.27.pdf
  38. http://www.eyeontheun.org/assets/attachments/documents/8139_defamation_vote.doc
  39. http://www.un.org/News/Press/docs/2009/ga10905.doc.htm
  40. Neo, Hui Min (25 March 2010). "UN rights body narrowly passes Islamophobia resolution". Canada.com. http://www.canada.com/life/rights+body+narrowly+passes+Islamophobia+resolution/2725805/story.html. Retrieved 27 March 2010. 

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